A significant drawback to many polymers is their flammability. Flame-retardant additives are often used and necessary for the finished commercial polymer based materials. Today, halogenated compounds for flame retardancy are mainly used in the industry. Halogenated organic molecules, such as brominated or chlorinated compounds, are particularly effective flame retardants. However, they cause environmental and health hazards that are restricting their continued use in the industry. Until very recently, especially polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were on the main materials used to plastic components. Europe banned the use of two formulations, PBDe pentaBDE and octaBDE in 2004. A third compound, decaBDE, was banned 1 April 2008 by the European Court of Justice. The use of decaBDE, the only PBDE still on the market in North America, in mattresses and residential upholstered furniture produced and sold in that state, and which was also banned to electronics in 2010. Due to health and environmental reasons new flame retardant compounds are necessary. So, there is a pressing need for new polymers with inherent flame resistance that do not contain halogen in the polymer matrix. Furthermore, groving interest for flame test and retardancy behaviour studies for new polymers without using any additives will be important and promising research in this field. Phosphorus and carborane containing polymers are promising in this regard, as these polymers tend to char rather than burn.
In the present study, phosphonate ester, phosphonic acid and aromatic (phenyl, naphthalene, anthracene) groups containing polymers were synthesized by the ROMP method to analyze thermal properties of these polymers. Thermal stability of the synthesized polymers is tested by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen, air and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) analysis. Analysis shows that thermal behavior is directly related to the phosphorus level in the copolymer series. All the polymers are thermally stable under nitrogen and air up to 900 C. Synergistic charring effect under air was observed between aromatic groups and phosphonic acid functionality in the copolymer series. Anthracene units have a greater potential to form carbonaceous char than the naphtalene and phenyl units.
This research focuses on the design and synthesis of novel polymer materials through the incorporation epoxidized soybean oil and phosphorus containing tetraol product (DYM) into the polymer structure to be used as non-flammable and biodegrable polyols. The synthesized polyols (ESBO-DYM) used in rijit polyurethane formulation.
In this project, it is planned to develop a varnish and paint formulation which has the property of non-flammability without any additives. Phosphorus based diols, diacids and anhydride based monomers were added to the polyester resin formulation to obtain phosphorus based polyester. From these polymers, 2-component polyurethane varnish and paint formulation and application were after applied and characterized.
In this study, DOPO (9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide) -Itaconic acid based monomer in the poliurethane and two component varnish polyester formulation. Beside that, DCPP as polymer chain extender was used for increasing phosphorus ratio in polymer chain. Thermomechanical properties of the synthesized polymers tested by TGA and LOI.
There are also many studies going on the covalent attachment of phosphorus or boron containing compounds to enhance flame retardancy.